Table 1: Main mycotoxins and their toxic effects in humans.


Mycotoxins Commodities Main associated fungi

Aflatoxins Maize, peanuts, tree nuts, dried fruits, spices Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus
Fumonisins Maize Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum
Ochratoxin A Cereals, dried fruits, grapes and wine, coffee, cocoa Asperigllus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum
Patulin Apples, grapes, other fruits Penicillium spp,
Deoxynivalenol Maize, wheat, barley, oats, beer Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum
Zearalenone Maize, wheat, barley, oats, beer Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum